Curriculum – connecting your learning

The development of any app or game involves many skills. The Victorian Curriculum outlines learning areas which integrate to support students’ development of a good game or challenge. A game or app development requires:

  • skills and understanding of digital technologies,
  • processes and understandings of design technologies,
  • use of critical and creative and thinking and,
  • ethical consideration . . .

. . . and that is all before you get to the content or subject matter of your game or app.

If it’s an historical game or app it has to be historically accurate. A scientific or mathematical also needs to be factually correct.

As the creator you have to respect your players enough to do the best job you can, and it can always include some humour.

Check the Rubrics on the Evaluation Criteria Page for mapping the criteria to the curriculum.

Below outlines some of the Curriculum areas considered part of a great app or game.

Creating Digital Solutions – Level 6

  • Define problems in terms of data and functional requirements, drawing on previously solved problems to identify similarities.
  • Design a user interface for a digital system, generating and considering alternative design ideas.
  • Design, modify and follow simple algorithms represented diagrammatically and in English, involving sequences of steps, branching, and iteration.
  • Develop digital solutions as simple visual programs.
  • Explain how student-developed solutions and existing information systems meet current and future community and sustainability needs.

By the end of Level 6:

  • Students explain the functions of digital system components and how digital systems are connected to form networks that transmit data.
  • Students explain how digital systems use whole numbers as a basis for representing a variety of data types. They manage the creation and communication of ideas, information and digital projects collaboratively using validated data and agreed protocols.
  • Students define problems in terms of data and functional requirements and design solutions by developing algorithms to address the problems. They incorporate decision-making, repetition and user interface design into their designs and develop their digital solutions, including a visual program. Students explain how information systems and their developed solutions meet current and future needs, taking sustainability into account.

By the end of Level 6 students describe some competing considerations in the design of solutions taking into account sustainability. They describe how design and technologies contribute to meeting present and future needs. Students explain how the features of technologies impact on designed solutions for each of the prescribed technologies contexts.

Investigating
Critique needs or opportunities to develop design briefs and investigate and select an increasingly sophisticated range of materials, systems, components, tools and equipment to develop design ideas.

Generating
Apply design thinking, creativity, innovation and enterprise skills to develop, modify and communicate design ideas of increasing sophistication.

Producing
Work flexibly to safely test, select, justify and use appropriate technologies and processes to make designed solutions

Evaluating
Evaluate design ideas, processes and solutions against comprehensive criteria for success recognising the need for sustainability.

Planning and managing
Develop project plans to plan and manage projects individually and collaboratively taking into consideration time, cost, risk and production processes

Students create designed solutions for each of the prescribed technologies contexts, suitable for identified needs or opportunities. They suggest criteria for success, including sustainability considerations and use these to evaluate their ideas and designed solutions. They combine design ideas and communicate these to audiences using graphical representation techniques and technical terms. Students record project plans including production processes. They select and use appropriate technologies and techniques correctly and safely to produce designed solutions.

In Levels 5 and 6, the curriculum focuses on developing the knowledge, skills and understanding to test the strength of thinking. Students develop their capacity to deliberately manage their thinking. Students explore common errors that can occur in thinking.

Levels 5 and 6 Content Descriptions

Questions and Possibilities

  • Examine how different kinds of questions can be used to identify and clarify information, ideas and possibilities (VCCCTQ021
  • Experiment with alternative ideas and actions by setting preconceptions to one side (VCCCTQ022)
  • Identify and form links and patterns from multiple information sources to generate non-routine ideas and possibilities (VCCCTQ023)

Reasoning

  • Investigate common reasoning errors including contradiction and inconsistency, and the influence of context (VCCCTR024
  • Consider the importance of giving reasons and evidence and how the strength of these can be evaluated (VCCCTR025)
  • Consider when analogies might be used in expressing a point of view and how they should be expressed and evaluated (VCCCTR026)
  • Examine the difference between valid and sound arguments and between inductive and deductive reasoning, and their degrees of certainty(VCCCTR027)
  • Explore what a criterion is, different kinds of criteria, and how to select appropriate criteria for the purposes of filtering information and ideas (VCCCTR028)

Meta-Cognition

  • Investigate thinking processes using visual models and language strategies (VCCCTM029)
  • Examine learning strategies, including constructing analogies, visualising ideas, summarising and paraphrasing information and reflect on the application of these strategies in different situations(VCCCTM030)
  • Investigate how ideas and problems can be disaggregated into smaller elements or ideas, how criteria can be used to identify gaps in existing knowledge, and assess and test ideas and proposals(VCCCTM031)

Levels 5 and 6 Achievement Standard

By the end of Level 6, students apply questioning as a tool to focus or expand thinking.  They use appropriate techniques to copy, borrow and compare aspects of existing solutions in order to identify relationships and apply these to new situations.

Students distinguish between valid and sound arguments and between deductive and inductive reasoning. They explain how reasons and evidence can be evaluated.  They explain and apply basic techniques to construct valid arguments and test the strength of arguments.

Explore the significance of ‘means versus ends’ by considering two ways to act when presented with a problem: one that privileges means and one ends.

Discuss the role and significance of conscience and reasoning in ethical decision-making

Achievement Standards

By the end of Level 6, students evaluate the meaning of ethical concepts and analyse their value, identifying areas of contestability. They explain different ways to respond to ethical problems and identify issues related to these.

Students identify different ethical issues associated with a particular problem. They identify the basis of a range of ethical principles and explain the role and significance of conscience and reasoning in ethical decision-making.

Creating Digital Solutions – Level 8

  • Define and decompose real-world problems taking into account functional requirements and sustainability (economic, environmental, social), technical and usability constraints.
  • Design the user experience of a digital system, generating, evaluating and communicating alternative designs.
  • Design algorithms represented diagrammatically and in English, and trace algorithms to predict output for a given input and to identify errors.
  • Develop and modify programs with user interfaces involving branching, iteration and functions using a general-purpose programming language.
  • Evaluate how well student-developed solutions and existing information systems meet needs, are innovative and take account of future risks and sustainability

By the end of Level 8:

Students distinguish between different types of networks and their suitability in meeting defined purposes.

Students explain how text, image and sound data can be represented and secured in digital systems and presented using digital systems. They analyse and evaluate data from a range of sources to model solutions and create information. They manage the collaborative creation of interactive ideas, information and projects and use appropriate codes of conduct when communicating online.

Students define and decompose problems in terms of functional requirements and constraints. They design user experiences and algorithms incorporating branching and iterations, and develop, test, and modify digital solutions. Students evaluate information systems and their solutions in terms of meeting needs, innovation and sustainability.

By the end of Level 8 students explain factors that influence the design of solutions to meet present and future needs. They explain the contribution of design and technology innovations and enterprise to society. Students explain how the features of technologies impact on designed solutions and influence design decisions for each of the prescribed technologies contexts.

Investigating
Generate, develop and test design ideas, plans and processes using appropriate technical terms and technologies including graphical representation techniques

Generating
Generate, develop and test design ideas, plans and processes using appropriate technical terms and technologies including graphical representation techniques

Producing
Effectively and safely use a broad range of materials, components, tools, equipment and techniques to produce designed solutions

Evaluating
Effectively and safely use a broad range of materials, components, tools, equipment and techniques to produce designed solutions

Planning and managing
Use project management processes to coordinate production of designed solutions.

Students create designed solutions for each of the prescribed technologies contexts based on an evaluation of needs or opportunities. They develop criteria for success, including sustainability considerations, and use these to judge the suitability of their ideas and designed solutions and processes. They create and adapt design ideas, make considered decisions and communicate to different audiences using appropriate technical terms and a range of technologies and graphical representation techniques. Students apply project management skills to document and use project plans to manage production processes. They independently and safely produce effective designed solutions for the intended purpose.

In Levels 7 and 8, the curriculum focuses on developing the knowledge, skills and understanding to analyse thinking and the selection and application of a range of techniques to support effective…

Levels 7 and 8 Content Descriptions

Questions and Possibilities

  • Consider how to approach and use questions that have different elements, including factual, temporal and conceptual elements (VCCCTQ032)
  • Suspend judgements temporarily and consider how preconceptions may limit ideas and alternatives(VCCCTQ033)
  • Synthesise information from multiple sources and use lateral thinking techniques to draw parallels between known and new solutions and ideas when creating original proposals and artefacts (VCCCTQ034)

Reasoning

  • Examine common reasoning errors including circular arguments and cause and effect fallacies(VCCCTR035)
  • Investigate the difference between a description, an explanation and a correlation and scepticism about cause and effect (VCCCTR036)
  • Investigate when counter examples might be used in expressing a point of view (VCCCTR037)
  • Consider how to settle matters of fact and matters of value and the degree of confidence in the conclusions (VCCCTR038)
  • Examine how to select appropriate criteria and how criteria are used in clarifying and challenging arguments and ideas (VCCCTR039)

Meta-Cognition

  • Consider a range of strategies to represent ideas and explain and justify thinking processes to others(VCCCTM040)
  • Examine a range of learning strategies and how to select strategies that best meet the requirements of a task (VCCCTM041)
  • Consider how problems can be segmented into discrete stages, new knowledge synthesised during problem-solving and criteria used to assess emerging ideas and proposals (VCCCTM042)

Levels 7 and 8 Achievement Standard

By the end of Level 8, students prioritise the elements of a question and justify their selection.  Students demonstrate flexibility in thinking by using a range of techniques in order to repurpose existing ideas or solutions to meet needs in new contexts.

Students explain different ways to settle matters of fact and matters of value and issues concerned with these. They explain and apply a range of techniques to test the strength of arguments.

Students represent thinking processes using visual models and language. They practice and apply learning strategies, including constructing analogies, visualising ideas, summarising and paraphrasing information. Students disaggregate ideas and problems into smaller elements or ideas, develop criteria to assess and test thinking, and identify and seek out new relevant information as required.

Explore the extent of ethical obligation and the implications for thinking about consequences and duties in decision-making and action.

Discuss the role of context and experience in ethical decision-making and actions

Achievement Standards

By the end of Level 8, students explain different ways ethical concepts are represented and analyse their value to society, identifying areas of contestability. They articulate how criteria can be applied to determine the importance of ethical concerns.

Students analyse the differences in principles between people and groups. They explain different views on the extent of ethical obligation and analyse their implications for the consequences of and duties involved in ethical decision-making and action.  They analyse the role of context and experience in ethical decision-making and action.

Creating Digital Solutions – Level 10

  • Define and decompose real-world problems precisely, taking into account functional and non-functional requirements and including interviewing stakeholders to identify needs.
  • Design the user experience of a digital system, evaluating alternative designs against criteria including functionality, accessibility, usability and aesthetics.
  • Design algorithms represented diagrammatically and in structured English and validate algorithms and programs through tracing and test cases.
  • Develop modular programs, applying selected algorithms and data structures including using an object-oriented programming language.
  • Evaluate critically how well student-developed solutions and existing information systems and policies take account of future risks and sustainability and provide opportunities for innovation.

 

By the end of Level 10:

By the end of Level 10, students explain the control and management of networked digital systems and the data security implications of the interaction between hardware, software and users.

Students explain simple data compression, and why content data are separated from presentation. They take account of privacy and security requirements when selecting and validating data and use digital systems to analyse, visualise and model salient aspects of data. Students share and collaborate online, establishing protocols for the legal and safe use, transmission and maintenance of data and projects.

Students define and decompose complex problems in terms of functional and non-functional requirements. They design and evaluate user experiences and algorithms, and develop and test modular programs, including an object-oriented program. Students evaluate their solutions and information systems in terms of risk, sustainability and potential for innovation.

By the end of Level 10

Critique needs or opportunities to develop design briefs and investigate and select an increasingly sophisticated range of materials, systems, components, tools and equipment to develop design ideas

Investigating
Apply design thinking, creativity, innovation and enterprise skills to develop, modify and communicate design ideas of increasing sophistication

Generating
Generate, develop and test design ideas, plans and processes using appropriate technical terms and technologies including graphical representation techniques.

Producing
Work flexibly to safely test, select, justify and use appropriate technologies and processes to make designed solutions.

Evaluating
Evaluate design ideas, processes and solutions against comprehensive criteria for success recognising the need for sustainability.

Planning and managing
Develop project plans to plan and manage projects individually and collaboratively taking into consideration time, cost, risk and production processes.

Students create designed solutions for each of the prescribed technologies contexts based on an evaluation of needs or opportunities. They develop criteria for success, including sustainability considerations, and use these to judge the suitability of their ideas and designed solutions and processes. They create and adapt design ideas, make considered decisions and communicate to different audiences using appropriate technical terms and a range of technologies and graphical representation techniques. Students apply project management skills to document and use project plans to manage production processes. They independently and safely produce effective designed solutions for the intended purpose.

Levels 9 and 10 Content Descriptions

Questions and Possibilities

  • Investigate the characteristics of effective questions in different contexts to examine information and test possibilities
  • Suspend judgements to allow new possibilities to emerge and investigate how this can broaden ideas and solutions
  • Challenge previously held assumptions and create new links, proposals and artefacts by investigating ideas that provoke shifts in perspectives and cross boundaries to generate ideas and solutions

Reasoning

  • Examine a range of rhetorical devices and reasoning errors, including false dichotomies and begging the question
  • Examine how to identify and analyse suppressed premises and assumptions
  • Investigate the nature and use of counter examples structured as arguments
  • Consider ambiguity and equivocation and how they affect the strength of arguments
  • Investigate use of additional or refined criteria when application of original criteria does not produce a clear conclusion

Meta-Cognition

  • Critically examine their own and others thinking processes and discuss factors that influence thinking, including cognitive biases
  • Investigate how the use of a range of learning strategies can be monitored, evaluated and re-directed as necessary
  • Investigate the kind of criteria that can be used to rationally evaluate the quality of ideas and proposals, including the qualities of viability and workability

Levels 9 and 10 Achievement Standard

By the end of Level 10, students construct and evaluate questions, including their own, for their effectiveness. They demonstrate a willingness to shift their perspective when generating ideas, resulting in new ways of perceiving solutions.

Students structure complex valid arguments. They explain and apply a range of techniques to test validity within and between arguments. Students identify, articulate, analyse and reflect on their own and others thinking processes. They use, monitor, evaluate and redirect as necessary a range of learning strategies. Students develop, justify and refine criteria to evaluate the quality of ideas, proposals and thinking processes.

Understanding Concepts

  • Students investigate the connections and distinctions between and the relative value of concepts including fairness and equality, and respect and tolerance
  • Explore a range of ethical problems and examine the extent to which different positions are related to commonly held ethical concepts and principles, considering the influence of cultural norms, religion, world views and philosophical thought
  • Distinguish between the ethical and non-ethical dimensions of complex issues, including the distinction between ethical and legal issues

Decision Making and Actions

  • Discuss issues raised by thinking about consequences and duties, in approaches to decision-making and action, and arguments for and against these approaches
  • Investigate how different factors involved in ethical decision-making can be managed by  people and groups

Achievement Standards

By the end of Level 10, students explain connections and distinctions between ethical concepts, identifying areas of contestability in their meanings and relative value.

Students analyse and evaluate contested approaches to thinking about consequences and duties in relation to ethical issues. They examine complex issues, identify the ethical dimensions and analyse commonality and difference between different positions. They explain how different factors involved in ethical decision-making can be managed.

Students who are working with the curriculum with a disability:

Level A  – Creating Digital Solutions 

Experience steps involved in completing a routine task

Level B  – Creating Digital Solutions 

Follow a sequence of steps and decisions needed to solve simple problems

Level C  – Creating Digital Solutions 

Follow, and with assistance represent a sequence of steps and decisions (algorithms) needed to solve simple problems

Level C – Digital Systems

Initiate some basic functions on common digital systems (hardware and software components) to meet a purpose

Level D  – Creating Digital Solutions 

Follow and represent a sequence of steps and decisions (algorithms) needed to solve simple problems

Level D – Digital Systems

Carry out some key functions on digital systems (hardware and software components) to meet a purpose

 

Design technology for students with a disability: 

By the end of Level A:

  • Students react to significant designed solutions that meet their needs.
  • With guidance, students experience designed solutions in at least one technologies context. They begin to communicate their needs and indicate a choice or preference through accept and reject actions.
  • Students react to the use of tools and equipment and experience the sequenced steps involved in producing a designed solution.

By the end of Level B:

  • Students are using some familiar designed solutions appropriately to meet their needs.
  • With guidance, students explore designed solutions in at least one technologies context. They experience designed solution ideas and select materials and components based on personal preferences.
  • Students follow a design process step by step and use tools safely when prompted.

By the end of Level C:

  • Students use and identify the purpose of familiar designed solutions. They match some designed solutions to a need.
  • Students use designed solutions in at least two technologies contexts.
  • With guidance, students reflect on created and produced designed solutions, developing ideas based on personal preferences. They begin to follow simple sequenced steps and teacher direction to use tools and equipment safely.

By the end of Level D:

  • Students describe the purpose of familiar designed solutions and what needs they meet.
  • Students use designed solutions in at least two technologies contexts, identifying significant features.
  • With guidance, students create designed solutions evaluating their ideas based on personal preferences. They select materials based on some understanding of their properties and characteristics. They follow simple sequenced steps to create a designed solution and demonstrate safe use of tools and equipment.

Students with diasbilities –  Critical and Creative Thinking Level Descriptions

By the end of Level A:

  • Students react to significant changes in their environment. Students generate ideas by using their senses to explore the characteristics of everyday objects and make choices between objects.
  • Students begin to identify their personal preference and make choices about what they would like and dislike.
  • Students are exposed to everyday problems and communicate their thinking through emotion responses. They experience the learning strategy of repetition and beginning to react in everyday routine activities.
  • Students communicate when faced with a problem. Full description http://victoriancurriculum.vcaa.vic.edu.au/levela(studentswithdisabilities)

By the end of Level B:

  • Students use their senses and cause and effect to explore and understand the world around them. Students generate ideas based on their experiences and make choices in structured situations.
  • Students begin to become aware of their own point of view through their emotions. Students answer ‘yes’ and ‘no’ questions which assist them to reflect on their learning and choice making.
  • Students use learning strategies including repetition to participate in everyday routines and events. They use cause and effect to understand the world around them and solve problems. Full description http://victoriancurriculum.vcaa.vic.edu.au/levelb(studentswithdisabilities)

 

By the end of level C:

  • Students answer simple questions about familiar events and topics. They identify a familiar idea or experience with support and make choices from a range of options.
  • Students can identify their own point of view. They use personal experience and examples to explain reasons.  They connect present and past experience with support.
  • Students predict what will happen next in a familiar routine. They practice some learning strategies including following a visual schedule.
  • Students demonstrate some problem-solving approaches when faced with common everyday issues. Full description http://victoriancurriculum.vcaa.vic.edu.au/levelc(studentswithdisabilities)

By the end of Level D:

  • Students answer simple questions related to their own investigation, their feelings or a concept. They identify and describe an event or scientific experiment. They generate ideas based on past experience and make choices based on their personal preferences.
  • Students can identify some components of a point of view. They draw on previous experience to assist with their ideas, reasoning and when drawing a conclusion.
  • Students actively participate in structured thinking activities. They practice some learning strategies to assist them to organise and demonstrate their ideas.
  • Students participate in problem solving activities and can articulate some possible solutions and their outcome in structured practical situations. Full description http://victoriancurriculum.vcaa.vic.edu.au/leveld(studentswithdisabilities)
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